Yan Li, Xinsheng Liu, Jens Christian Claussen and Wanlin Guo . Evolutionary dynamics for persistent cooperation in structured populations. PHYSICAL REVIEW E(2015)(2015)

PHYSICAL REVIEW E
Yan Li, Xinsheng Liu, Jens Christian Claussen and Wanlin Guo
PHYSICAL REVIEW E(2015)(2015)
DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.91.062802
Evolutionary dynamics for persistent cooperation in structured populations

Institute of Nano Science, State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Key Laboratory for Intelligent Nano Materials and Devices of the Ministry of Education, and Department of Mathematics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
Jacobs University Bremen, Computational Systems Biology Lab, Research 2, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen, Germany

Received 14 November 2014; published 5 June 2015

Abstract

The emergence and maintenance of cooperative behavior is a fascinating topic in evolutionary biology and social science. The public goods game (PGG) is a paradigm for exploring cooperative behavior. In PGG, the total resulting payoff is divided equally among all participants. This feature still leads to the dominance of defection
without substantially magnifying the public good by a multiplying factor. Much effort has been made to explain the evolution of cooperative strategies, including a recent model in which only a portion of the total benefit is shared by all the players through introducing a new strategy named persistent cooperation. A persistent cooperator is a contributor who is willing to pay a second cost to retrieve the remaining portion of the payoff contributed by themselves. In a previous study, this model was analyzed in the framework of well-mixed populations. This paper focuses on discussing the persistent cooperation in lattice-structured populations. The evolutionary dynamics of the structured populations consisting of three types of competing players (pure cooperators, defectors, and persistent cooperators) are revealed by theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. In particular, the
approximate expressions of fixation probabilities for strategies are derived on one-dimensional lattices. The phase diagrams of stationary states, and the evolution of frequencies and spatial patterns for strategies are illustrated on both one-dimensional and square lattices by simulations. Our results are consistent with the general observation that, at least in most situations, a structured population facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Specifically, here we find that the existence of persistent cooperators greatly suppresses the spreading of defectors under more relaxed conditions in structured populations compared to that obtained in well-mixed populations.

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