Bending-induced extension in two-dimensional crystals. Acta Mech. Sin. 2017

We find by ab initio simulations that significant overall tensile strain can be induced by pure bending in a wide range of two-dimensional crystals perpendicular to the bending moment, just like an accordion being bent to open. This bending-induced tensile strain increases in a power law with bent curvature and can be over 20% in monolayered black phosphorus and transition metal dichalcogenides at a moderate curvature of 2 nm−1 butmore than an order weaker in graphene and hexagon boron nitride. This accordion effect is found to be a quantum mechanical effect raised by the asymmetric response of chemical bonds and electron density to the bending curvature.

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